The PulseWave Energy Natural Resonance Disintegration Mill provide the benefits of an innovative process (the “PulseWave” process) that allows for the clean removal of the desirable organic material, primarily kerogen, from raw oil shale ore prior to the retorting process, and does so without significantly altering the chemistry of either component. This beneficiation process would allow for kerogen to be retorted as a nearly pure phase as compared to current technologies that retort the raw oil shale ore in its entirety.
The results of research performed clearly demonstrate that kerogen can be liberated from oil shale by the PulseWave Energy process. By producing this relatively clean stream of kerogen for processing, it was demonstrated that the oil yield was increased significantly over raw oil shale (149.1 gal/ton for highly purified kerogen concentrate vs. 32.3 gal/ton for the raw oil shale), and an analysis of the oil product determined that it is substantially the same as shale oils produced by conventional retorting. In addition to increasing the shale oil yield from the raw feedstock, the production of this relatively clean kerogen phase by the PulseWave process could significantly lower handling and processing costs and decrease the amount of pollution normally associated with conventional oil shale retorting operations.
The technology behind the Pulsewave milling machine provides for the selective differentiation and fragmentation of particles in complex multi-phase materials such as oil shale, as opposed to the simple crushing and micronizing that result from conventional milling methods. This results in materials being fragmented from within rather than being crushed by impact or grinding. Therefore, materials will tend to cleave along the internal planes of their structure that are the most susceptible to separation, and in the case of the components in oil shale, that is apparently the boundary between particles of mineral matter and particles of the more elastic kerogen. This process produces a “cleaner” component particle than conventional milling because of the elimination of the smearing that normally accompanies the physical crushing of a material. The Pulsewave procedure processes raw oil shale to produce a finely divided material and then separates this material into a kerogen concentrate and a mineral fraction. The produced kerogen concentrate is available for other downstream processing to produce a shale oil product. This kerogen beneficiation offers several benefits to the oil shale industry, including but are not limited to the following:
- The pre-retort removal of the undesirable shale matrix would substantially reduce the leachable solids and toxic water that are produced by retorting raw oil shale ore. The Pulsewave process does not significantly alter the chemistry of the shale matrix, only the particle size, and therefore does not mobilize the toxic elements or compounds that are chemically bound and relatively stable in the raw ore. Essentially, the processed shale should be basically the same material as that which was present to begin with, thereby facilitating its handling and disposal.
- If the organic and mineral matter fractions of the oil shale were separated before the retorting process, the mineral matter fraction would not undergo expansion due to high heat (“popcorn” effect). Thus, it could be returned in total to the site where it was originally mined with no need for accommodation of an increased volume of waste material.
- The source of many of the pollutants in the gaseous emissions from a retort facility would be removed from the retort process, resulting in cleaner “off gas” from these facilities.
- The micronized shale waste that would result from the PulseWave process would be so small in particle diameter that it could easily be transported to the disposal site (i.e., underground mine) by hydraulic means and packed into place at high density. In addition, fine-grained oil shale particles such as those that have been produced by the PulseWave process have a tendency to be self-cementing and the resulting material tends to have a very low permeability, thus reducing the potential for groundwater flow through the material in an underground disposal site (Peterson, 1978).
- By removing the organic matter from the mineral matrix prior to the retorting process, the energy necessary to retort the resulting clean kerogen phase would be considerably less than that required to retort raw oil shale. Carbonate minerals are a major component of many oil shales, including the Green River formation of the western US and these minerals decompose endothermically and react with other minerals in oil shale at approximately the same temperature required for kerogen conversion (Chappell, 1988, and Keller, 1985). The heat requirement for these reactions is large, and therefore they consume a significant amount of the energy during a conventional retorting operation. • With the shale matrix removed, the relatively clean kerogen phase generated at or nearby to the mining site could be blended with locally produced crude oils and transported via pipeline to an off-site refinery or retorting facility, resulting in lower processing costs and environmental exposure.
The combination of any of these perceived benefits could significantly reduce the costs associated with processing oil shale into shale oil and also mitigate the negative environmental impact of extracting and processing oil shale.
Research & Development Completed
Pulse Wave has validated and proven its technology in many industries and is confident similar successes can be realized in the oil shale industry!
“There is no machine that is exactly like the Pulse Wave Resonance Disintegration Mill. It is a novel technology and moves oil shale processing beyond the current state of the art.”
– U.S. Department of Energy
“The Pulse Wave technology has the ability to reduce a very high percentage of clean endosperm into flour in a single pass and thus potentially uses significantly less energy than a conventional mill. This technology causes grain to break into fractions differently than a conventional mill, and thus produces flour with different, possibly superior, quality traits.”
“Pulse Wave resonance disintegration is a breakthrough technology for the efficient and cost-effective comminution of coal to fine particle sizes. 80% of the pyrite and 50% of the mercury were removed by the Pulse Wave technology process of liberation and separation. Pulse Wave technology also reduces the inherent moisture content of the coals by 60% to greater than 80%, followed by a ~ 10% increase in thermal value, without requiring additional heating of the coal or pulverizing unit.”
– Clean Coal Research Study (U.S. Department of Energy; Western Research Institute, Southern Illinois University-research study participants)
“The Pulse Wave mill has the potential to cleanly, and efficiently produce oil from raw shale oil material, providing energy resource requirements for the next 100 years”!
– U.S. Department of Energy
“Liposomes are used in the delivery of pharmaceuticals, cosmetic agents and micronutrients. It is believed that the (Pulse Wave) mill can be used to generate shearing forces sufficient to produce liposomes in high abundance.”
- William E. Hahn, Ph.D.
“It is clear that the Pulse Wave mill is energy efficient, environmentally sound, and economically competitive, and the production of mill equipment and its related industries could add significant capital and thousands of jobs to the State’s economy.”
– Brian Vogt, Director, State of Colorado Office of Economic Development & International Trade
Research projects have been completed with numerous organizations, including:
- Aberdeen (Army R&D) American Ingredients Corp Coors Brewery
- JLM Engineered Resins
- Krispy Kreme
- Rogers Foods
- Shell Oil
- Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) ConAgra
- Farmpure Inc.
- General Mills
- Cargill, Incorporated
- Kraft Foods
- Pfizer Corporation
Research and Grant partners have included:
- U.S. Department of Energy
- U.S. Department of Agriculture
- Southern Illinois University (Carbondale, IL)
- Western Research Institute (Laramie, WY)
- Kansas State University
- Denver University
Meet Our Team
Chief Executive Officer
Chief Executive Officer
Mr. DiSanti has served on several Boards of Directors for public companies and has managed several public company acquisitions and takeovers. He has worked in all areas of the M&A space including structuring and financing real estate and corporate acquisitions, public and private takeovers, and entrepreneurial equity-backed financing.